Fracture – What it is, Causes, Symptoms and Treatments indicated to ameliorate this condition. In addition, the fracture is the rupture of the bones , that is, when there is a loss of bone continuity. After a trauma, the bone splits into two or more fragments. There are several types of fractures, those that improve before they are diagnosed and those that need medical emergency.
Exposed is the most dangerous. When exposed it is not well treated can cause an infection. Some are so simple that they can not even be perceived or solved spontaneously, but others can be so serious that they carry the risk of death.
What is Fracture:
A break (not just a break) in the bone is also known as a fracture. They can occur on any body bone.
There are several different ways in which a bone can fracture; for example, a rupture in the bone that does not damage the surrounding tissue or tear the skin is known as a closed fracture.
On the other hand, one that damages the surrounding skin and penetrates the skin is known as a compound fracture or an open fracture. Combined fractures are generally more severe than simple fractures because, by definition, they are infected.
Most human bones are surprisingly strong and can usually withstand strong impacts or forces. However, if this force is too powerful, or there is something wrong with the bone, it may fracture.
The older the less strength our bones can withstand. As children’s bones are more elastic, when they have fractures they tend to be different. Children also have growth plates at the end of their bones – areas of bone growth – that can sometimes be damaged.
Causes of Fracture:
Most fractures are caused by a bad fall or auto accident. Healthy bones are extremely tough and resilient and can withstand surprisingly powerful impacts. As people get older, two factors increase the risk of fractures: weaker bones and a greater risk of falling.
Children, who tend to have more physically active lifestyles than adults, are also prone.
People with underlying diseases and conditions that can weaken their bones have a higher risk of fractures. Examples include osteoporosis , infection or tumor. As mentioned earlier, this type of is known as pathological fracture.
The of stress that result from repeated stresses and strains commonly found among professional sports, are also common causes.
Types of Fracture:
There are a variety of types of fractures including:
Avulsion fracture: A muscle or ligament pulls the bone, fracturing it.
Compression fracture (crust): usually occurs in the spongy bone of the spine. For example, the front portion of a vertebra in the spine may collapse due to osteoporosis .
Oblique fracture: it is diagonal to the long axis of a bone.
Dislocation of the fracture: a joint is displaced and one of the bones of the joint presents a fracture.
Spiral fracture: where at least part of the bone has been twisted.
Greenstick Fracture: The bone partially fractures on one side but does not break through because the rest of the bone can bend. This is more common among children whose bones are softer and more elastic.
Stress fracture: most common among athletes. A bone breaks due to repeated stresses and tensions.
Hair fracture : partial fracture of the bone. Sometimes this type is harder to detect with routine x-rays.
Affected Fracture: When the bone is fractured, a fragment of bone enters into another.
Transverse fracture: a direct fall into a bone.
Longitudinal fracture: the rupture occurs along the bone.
Pathologic Fracture: When an underlying disease or condition has already weakened the bone, resulting in a fracture (bone fracture caused by an underlying disease / condition that weakened the bone).
Fracture of buckle: bone deforms, but does not break. More common in children. It is painful, but stable.
Fragmented fracture: the bone is broken in many pieces.
Symptoms of Fracture:
The signs and symptoms vary according to which the bone is affected, the age of the patient and the general health, as well as the severity of the injury. However, they usually include some of the following:
The patient can not place weight on the injured area;
The affected bone or joint may have a grid-like feel;
There may be dizziness (feeling weak)
If it is an open fracture, there may be bleeding;
Feeling sick and nauseated ;
Discolored skin around the affected area;
The sufferer may appear pale and moist
Angulation – the affected area can be bent at an unusual angle;
The patient can not move the affected area;
If possible, do not move a person with broken bone until a health professional is present and can assess the situation and, if necessary, apply a splint. If the patient is in a dangerous place, such as in the middle of a busy road, it is sometimes necessary to act before the emergency services arrive.
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The treatment depends on the type and characteristics of them, but surgery should be considered as the last option, reserved for special cases such as exposed or complicated fractures. Conservative treatment seeks to favor conditions for the natural process of bone repair to occur and is variable depending on the bone that has been reached and the type of injury involved.
In fractures where bone deviation has occurred, it is necessary to reduce the fracture, exerting traction on the affected limb and causing the bone ends to be aligned again and in their natural anatomical position. After this alignment, the affected limb must be immobilized so that there is no pain and a repair can occur, which can be done by several means.
The most frequent is that a cast splint or the support with elastic bandages is used. Depending on the affected bone or type, this immobilization can range from three to eight weeks or more. At the same time, analgesics and anti-inflammatories can be used to relieve pain and local inflammation. Foods containing calcium promote bone healing.
Surgical treatment is reserved for those cases where conservative treatment can not be done and it also seeks to restore normal bone alignment and maintain this alignment until repair. In addition, it also allows correcting some soft tissue injuries, such as ruptured blood vessels, for example. Restoration of bone continuity by surgical means can be done with the use of plates, screws, endomedular rods or metallic wires.